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Course Contents

THEORY Basic concepts of Limnology: An overview of Limnology: the science of inland waters: Scope, evolution and current situation. Water as a Substance:The characteristics of water, Molecular structure and properties, Specific heat, Density relationships, viscosity-Density relationships. Water economy: Hydrological cycle, Evaporation and Precipitation, Runoff flow processes, Global water balance, water balance in Lake Basin. Freshwater habitats: Nature of lotic and lentic habitats, Origin and classification of lotic (Rivers, streams, springs and wetlands) and lentic (Lakes, reservoirs, lagoons, floodplains and ponds) waters and thermal stratification, Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Lentic and Lotic ecosystems. Structure and Productivity of Aquatic Ecosystems: The drainage basin concept, Diverse Characteristics of stream and river ecosystems, Lacustrine zonation and terminology, Lake ecosystem concept, Population growth and regulation, Community structure and Interrelationships, Ecological niche, Competition, Ecosystem interrelationships, Trophic structure of food cycles and Food webs in aquatic ecosystems, top-down and bottom up control of aquatic food webs, Freshwater Plankton, Zooplankton, Piscivorous animals and their trophic interactions in an aquatic ecosystem, Detritus: Dead organic matter and detrital Dynamic structure, River Continuum Concept (RCC). Monitoring and management of Freshwater bodies: Water quality assessment and brief description of physico-chemical parameters (temperature, light, dissolved oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity and electrical conductivity); interrelationships among physico-chemical parameters of freshwater bodies and aquatic organisms with example of ponds; biological, physiological and ecological monitoring in limnetic communities. Freshwater resources of Pakistan: Overview of water resources and renewable internal freshwater resources in Pakistan, Conservation and sustainable management of inland water resources including aquatic insects, common freshwater aquatic weeds and their control. Fresh waters, the World and the Future: Introduction, Population, food supply and water, Resource use and water, Technology and water, Trends in freshwater science; new genetic technologies, Ecotoxicology, Levels of approach, Advances in monitoring techniques, Solving the problems, Treaties, Consequences of evolution, Alternative states and human societies. PRACTICALS Aquatic sampling techniques, Introduction and basic water quality variables, studies of laboratory and field sampling methods of limnology, sampling and identification of selected aquatic organisms and demonstration of physical and chemical sampling gears and techniques used in freshwater bodies, survey of lotic and lentic water bodies; the monitoring of a lake or standing water body, Studies of common zoo and phytoplankton, Analysis of physico-chemical parameters like temperature, DO, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, light penetration, total alkalinity, salinity, Total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness and chlorides and survey report.

Course Synopsis

a. Develop an understanding of the life and ecosystems of freshwater environments as well as the biology and ecology of organisms found in freshwater of ponds, lakes and rivers. b. Nature of lotic and lentic water species as well as diversification and knowledge of the history, perspective and complexity of aquatic world.

Course Learning Outcomes

Students will be able to know about Freshwater resources of Pakistan. It will create awareness regarding i. recent trends of aquaculture in relation to diversified aquatic organisms ii. Sustainable management of inland resources by examining monitoring techniques ii. ecological responses of freshwater organisms in association with water quality deterioration.

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Book Title : Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystem
Author : Wetzel, R.G.
Edition : 2001. 3rd Ed.
Publisher : Academic Press, San Deigo. California, USA.

Book Title : Ecology of Freshwaters, A View for the Twenty-first Century.
Author : Moss, B
Edition : 20104th Ed.
Publisher : Blackwell Publishers, UK.

Book Title : . Ecology of Aquatic Systems. .
Author : Dobson, M. and Frid, C.
Edition : 2nd Ed.2009
Publisher : Oxford University Press

Title : fresh water biology ppt 8
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Title : properties of water lecture 4 and 5
Type : Other

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Title : water quality lecture 6 and 7
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Title : fresh water plankton 1
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Title : fresh water plankton 2
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Title : fresh water plankton 3
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Title : fresh water biology ppt 8
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Title : freshwater systems
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Title : aquatic ecology
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