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Course Contents

COURSE CONTENTS THEORY 1. The beginnings of Microbiology; Discovery of the microbial world; Discovery of the role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter in the causation of diseases, development of pure culture methods. The scope of microbiology. Microbial evolution, systematics and taxonomy. Characterization and identification of microorganisms and Nomenclature. 2. Viruses: Bacteriophages and phages of other protests. Replication of bacteriophages. Viruses of animals and plants; History, structure and composition; classification and cultivation of animal viruses. Effects of virus infection on cells. Cancer and viruses. 3. Morphology and fine structure of bacteria: Size, shape and arrangement of bacterial cells, Flagella and motility, Pili, Capsules, sheaths, Prosthecae and stalks, structure and chemical composition of cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, protoplasts, spheroplasts, the cytoplasm, nuclear material. 4. The Cultivation of Bacteria: Nutritional requirements, nutritional types of bacteria, bacteriological media, physical conditions required for growth, choice of media, conditions of incubation. 5. Reproduction and growth of bacteria: Modes of cell division, New cell formation, Normal growth cycle of bacteria, synchronous growth, continuous culture, quantitative measurement of bacterial growth; Direct microscopic count, Electronic enumeration of cell numbers, the plate count method, Membrane-filter count, Turbidimetric method, Determination of nitrogen content, Determination of the dry weight of cells, The selection of a procedure to measure growth, Importance of measurement of growth. 6. Pure cultures and cultural characteristics: Natural microbial populations, selective methods; Chemical methods, Physical methods, Biological methods, Selection in nature, Pure cultures; Methods of isolating pure cultures, Maintenance and preservation of pure cultures, Culture collections, Cultural characteristics; Colony characteristics, Characteristics of broth cultures. 7. Eukaryotic Microorganisms: Algae: Biological and economic importance of algae; Characteristics of algae; Lichens. Fungi: Importance of fungi; Morphology; Physiology and reproduction, Cultivation of fungi. Protozoa: Ecology and importance of protozoa. Classification of protozoa. 8. Prokaryotic diversity Bacteria: Purple and green bacteria; cyanobacteria, prochlorophytes, chemolithotrophs, methanotrophs and methylotrophs, sulfate and sulfur-reducing bacteria, homoacetogenic bacteria, Budding and appendaged bacteria, spirilla, spirochetes, Gliding bacteria, Sheathed bacteria, Pseudomonads, Free living aerobic nitrogen fixing bacteria, Acetic acid bacteria, Zymomonous and chromobacterium, Vibrio, Facultatively aerobic Gram-negative rods, Neisseria and other Gram-negative cocci, Rickettsias, Chlamydias, Gram-positive cocci, Lactic acid bacteria, Endospore forming Gram-positive rods and cocci, Mycoplasmas, High GC Gram-positive bacteria; Actinomycetes, Coryneform bacteria, propionic acid bacteria, Mycobacterium, Filamentous Actinomycetes. 9. Prokaryotic Diversity: Archaea: Extremely Halophilic archaea, Methane producing archaea: Methanogens, Hyperthermophilic archaea, Thermoplasma. 10. Microbial Ecology: Microorganisms in nature, Microbial activity measurements, Aquatic habitats, Deep-sea microbiology, Terrestrial environments, hydrothermal vents, Rumen microbial ecosystem, Microbial leaching, Biogeochemical cycles; Trace metals and mercury, Biodegradation of Xenobiotics. 11. Microbial metabolism: Fuelling reactions in aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs and autotrophs. 12. Microbial metabolism: Biosynthesis, polymerization, assembly: Methods of studying biosynthesis, synthesis of Nucleotides, Amino acids, Lipids, Porphyrins, Proteins, Polysaccharides and peptidoglycan polymerization of building blocks, Assembly of biopolymers into cellular components. PRACTICALS 1. Study of bacteria, yeasts and molds, and protozoa. 2. Staining of microorganisms: Simple stains, positive staining; negative staining. 3. Demonstration of special structures by stains: Spore stain, Flagella stain. 4. Differential stains: Gram stain, Metachromatic Granule stain, Acid fast stain. 5. Culturing of microorganisms: 6. Preparation and sterilization of culture media, agar slope, agar slab, streak plates, pour plates methods. 7. Isolation of a bacterial culture. 8. Quantitative plating methods. The turbidimetric estimation of microbial growth. Study of bacterial viruses.

Course Synopsis

An Introduction to Microbiology and Microbiological Techniques The beginnings of Microbiology Discovery of the microbial world Discovery of the role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter in the causation of diseases Microbial evolution Characterization and identification of microorganisms

Course Learning Outcomes

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The course is designed to enable the students to work with microorganisms. The basic techniques of sterilization, culturing, isolation and determining different characteristics of the microorganisms are included.

Taxonomy of Bacteria: Identification and Classification

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A tour of the Microbiology Lab

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Introduction to Microbiology Culture Techniques

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Book Title : Prescott's Principles of Microbiology
Author : Joanne Willey and Kathleen Sandman
Edition : 2nd Edition
Publisher : McGraw-Hill

Book Title : Benson's Microbiological Applications
Author : Alfred Brown
Edition : 12th Edition
Publisher : McGraw-Hill

Book Title : Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
Author : David H. Bergey
Edition : 1st Edition
Publisher : Wiley
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Title : Introduction to Micro Lab Apparatus
Type : Presentation

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Title : Introduction to Basic Micro Lab Techniques
Type : Presentation

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Title : Microbiological Techniques P-I
Type : Presentation

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Title : Microbiological Techniques P-II
Type : Presentation

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Title : Staining Techniques
Type : Presentation

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Title : The Growth, Survival and Death of Microorganisms
Type : Presentation

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Title : Cultivation of Microorganisms
Type : Presentation

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Title : List of Culture Media Used in Microbiology
Type : Other

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Title : Nutrient Agar Preparation
Type : Other

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