1.Movements and Muscles: Structural basis of muscle contraction: molecular structures of contractile components and their interaction, sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium and membrane mechanisms in regulation of contraction.
2. Cardiovascular Mechanisms: Electrical activity of heart: Automaticity, Rhythmicity, Electrocardiography, Kymography; Hemodynamics, Blood flow, pressures and resistance and their interrelationships. Control of cardiac activity (cardiac output) and peripheral circulation.
3. Exchange of Gases: Transport of O2 and CO2 between respiratory surface (the lungs) and body cells. Regulation of lungs respiration; Gas transfer in water (gills) and its regulation. Respiratory responses in extreme conditions as hypoxia; Hypercapnia in air breathing divers.
4. Excretion and Osmoregulation: Osmoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial environment. Vertebrate nephron as osmoregulatory organ: Physiological anatomy, Glomerular filtration, Tubular absorption and secretion; Nitrogenous waste products; Patterns of nitrogenous excretion and their phylogenetic development.
5. Nutrition: Regulation of digestive secretions; Physiological anatomy of digestive tract (mammalian model), Absorption of water, ions and nutrients; Potential and Movements in Gastrointestinal tract; Control of Motility.
6.Temperature Relations: Temperature classification of Animals; Temperature relation of ectotherms in freezing and cold and warm and hot environment; Costs and benefits of ectothermy; Temperature relations of heterotherms and endotherms; Dormancy: Sleep, Torpor, Hibernation, Estivation.
1. Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanisms and Adaptations.Randall, D., Burggren,
W., French, K. and Fernald, R., 2002. 5th ed. W.H.Freeman and Company,
2. Physiology. Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M.B., 2001. 4th edition. Lippincott,
Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
3. Principles of Physiology.Berne, R.M. and Levy, M.N., 2000. 3rd edition. St. Lious,
4. Textbook of Medical Physiology.Guyton, A.C. and Hall, J.E., 2000. 10th Edition.
W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.
5. Comparative Animal Physiology. Withers, P.C., 1992. Saunders College
6. Animal Physiology, Adaptation and Environment. Schmidt-Nelsen, K., 1997.
5th Ed.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
1. Cardiovascular Activity: Normal cardiac activity, effect of temperature, effect of drug, heart block, tetanization of heart. Measurement of blood pressure.
2. Respiration and Exercise: Oxygen consumption in fish and effect of temperature (by dissolved oxygen meter) and terrestrial animal (mouse). Oxygen consumption (by respirometer), heart rate, blood pressure glycemia altered by exercise.
3. Endocrine and Reproductive Mechanisms: Effect of insulin on glycemia, study of stages in estrous cycle.
1. Experiments in Physiology.Tharp, G. and Woodman, D., 2002. 8th Edition. Prentice, Hall, London.
Course Learning Outcomes
The basic functional expression in animals is the membrane irritability understood in the form of nerve impulse. This course particularly imparts the concepts and mechanisms of integration in the different functional systems of the animals. These mainly constitute the mechanisms of nervous system and the hormonal system for the coordination. The motility and locomotion also contributes in the integration of the animal to its environment, therefore, also included in this section.
Potential and Movements in Gastrointestinal tract; Control of Motility
Structural basis of muscle contraction
sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium and membrane mechanisms in regulation of contraction.
Control of cardiac activity
Blood flow resistance and their interrelationships
Exchange of Gases
Gas transfer in water (gills) and its regulation.
Respiratory responses in extreme conditions
Osmoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial environment
Vertebrate nephron as osmoregulatory organ
Nitrogenous waste products
Regulation of digestive secretions
Physiological anatomy of digestive tract (mammalian model)
Temperature Relations: Temperature
Dormancy: Sleep, Torpor, Hibernation, Estivation
Regulation of lungs respiration
Book Title : Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanisms and Adaptations
Author : Randall, D., Burggren, W., French, K. and Fernald, R
Edition : 5th
Publisher : W.H.Freeman and Company, New York