1. Plant Growth Regulators: Major natural hormones and their synthethic analogues. Bioassay, structure, biosynthesis, receptors, signal transduction and mode of action, transport, physiological effects of Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene, Polyamines, Brassinosteriods, Jasmonates, and Salicylic acid.
2. Plant Mineral Nutrition: Inorganic composition of plant and soil. Absorption of mineral nutrients - roots, mycorrhizae. Effect of soil pH on nutrient availability. Ion traffic into root. The nature of membrane carriers, channels and electrogenic pumps .Passive and active (primary and secondary) transports and their energetics. Essential and beneficial elements-their functions and deficiency symptoms in plants. Fertilizers and their significance in Agriculture.
3. Phytochromes: Discovery of phytochromes and cryptochromes. Physical and chemical properties of phytochromes. Distribution of phytochromes among species, cells and tissues and their role in biological processes. Phytochromes and gene expression.
4. Control of Flowering: Autonomous versus environmental regulation. Circadien rhythms. Classification of plants according to photoperiodic reaction, photoperiodic induction, locus of photoperiodic reaction and dark periods in photoperiodism. Role of photoperiodism in flowering. Biochemical signaling involved in flowering. Vernalization and its effect on flowering. Floral meristem and floral organ development. Floral organ identity genes and the ABC model.
5. Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction: Genome size and organization. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Signal transduction in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
1. To investigate the preferential absorption of ions by corn seedlings and potato slices.
2. To determine osmotic potential of massive tissue by freezing point depression method or by an osmometer.
3. To investigate water potential of a plant tissue by dye method and water potential apparatus.
4. Determination of K uptake by excised roots.
5. Measurement of stomatal index and conductance.
6. Qualitative determination of K content in Guard cells by Sodium cobalt nitrite method.
plant hormones introduction
auxin history synthesis roles
ion uptake and transport
Book Title : Plant Physiology
Author : Lincon Taiz, Eduardo Zeiger
Edition : 5th
Publisher : Sinauer Associates, 2010