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Course Contents

DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY: Biopharmaceutics, Generic Equivalence, Therapeutic Equivalents, Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, Drug Disposition, Pharmacokinetics (LADMER; Liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and response). GASTRO-INTESTINAL ABSORPTION: Forces which help in transmembrane movements, Anatomical and physiological factors influencing absorption of drugs. Physicochemical properties of drugs affecting absorption. Absorption of different oral dosage forms. BIOLOGICAL HALF LIFE AND VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION: Introduction, types, methods of determination and application. DRUG CLEARANCE: Introduction, Mechanism, Models, determination and relationship of clearance with half-life. PHARMACOKINETICS: Introduction, Linear and Non-linear Pharmacokinetics Application of pharmacokinetics in clinical situations. MULTIPLE DOSAGE REGIMEN: a. Introduction, principles of superposition b. Factors: persistent, accumulation and loss factors c. Repetitive Intravenous injections – One Compartment Open Model d. Repetitive Extravascular dosing – One Compartment Open model e. Multiple Dose Regimen – Two Compartment Open Model CONCEPT OF COMPARTMENT(S) MODELS: I. One compartment open model. a. Intravenous Injection (Bolus) b. Intravenous infusion. II. Multicompartment models. a. Two compartment open model. b. IV bolus, IV infusion and oral administration III. Non-compartmental Model. a. Statistical Moment Theory b. MRT for various compartment models c. Physiological Pharmacokinetic model ELIMINATION OF DRUGS: a) Hepatic Elimination: Percent of Drug Metabolized, Drug Biotransformation reactions, (Phase-I reactions and phase-II reactions), First pass effect, Hepatic clearance of protein bound drugs and Biliary excretion of drugs. b) Renal Excretion of Drugs: Renal clearance, Tubular Secretion and Tubular Reabsorption. c) Elimination of Drugs through other organs: Pulmonary excretion, salivary excretion, Mammilary excretion, Skin excretion and Genital excretion. PROTEIN BINDING: Introduction, types, kinetics, determination and clinical significance of drug-protein binding PHARMACOKINETICS VARIATIONS IN DISEASE STATES: Determination of pharmacokinetics variations in renal and hepatic diseases, general approaches for dose adjustment in renal diseaseand hepatic diseases. PHARMACOKINETICS OF INTRAVENOUS INFUSIONS: BIOPHARMACEUTICAL ASPECTS IN DEVELOPING A DOSAGE FORM: Drug considerations, drug product considerations, patient considerations, manufacturing considerations, pharmacodynamic considerations pharmacokinetic considerations. BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE: a. Introduction. b. Bioavailability types, parameters, significance and study protocol. c. Methods of Assessment of Bioavailability. d. Bioequivalence study designs, components and application, report format. IN-VITRO-IN-VIVO CORRELATION (IVIVC): Introduction, levels and determination of in-vitro/in-vivo correlation.

Course Synopsis

To develop an understanding of various biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic principles in the development of dosage forms, assessment of bioavailability of drugs and pharmacokinetic modeling of drugs using compartmental and non compartmental approaches

Course Learning Outcomes

Students will learn importance of physicochemical, physiological, formulation factors and effects of routes of administration and dosage forms on the disintegration, dissolution, absorption and finally bioavailability of drugs from different dosage forms. An understanding of pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs based on compartmental and non compartmental approaches.

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Book Title : Applied Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics
Author : Shargel L
Edition : 7 edition (August 28, 2015)
Publisher : McGraw-Hill Education / Medical

Book Title : Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Author : Gibaldi M
Edition : 4 edition (September 15, 2005)
Publisher : Educa Books

Title : Bioavailability and bioequivalence
Type : Presentation

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Title : Appliations of pharmacokinetics in renal disease
Type : Presentation

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Title : Applications of pharmacokinetics in hepatic disease
Type : Presentation

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