1. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life, Protocell formation, Multicellularity, Life in seas.
2. Palaeohistory and origin of fauna: Invasion of life on land, Geological time chart with referenceto animal diversity.
3. Patterns of biodiversity: Diversity among living organisms, Species diversity, Naming and classifying species, Genetic diversity.
4. Elements of biodiversity: Molecular basis, Geographical aspects. Evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships: Evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships within animal kingdom from Protista to Mammalia.
5. Classification of organisms from virus to man: Diagnostic features of each phylum and class in case of invertebrates and up to order in case of Chordates.
6. Ecozones of Pakistan: Animal diversity in relation to various ecozones of Pakistan.
7. Measurement of biodiversity: Understanding of diversity indices.
1. Wildlife of Pakistan: Identification, Distribution and status of fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals of major importance in Pakistan.
2. Threats to Biological Diversity: Human impact on species extinction, Habitat destruction, Pollution, Effects of industrial and agricultural development and urbanization on wildlife, Invasive species.
3. Wildlife rules and regulations: Wildlife rules and regulations in Pakistan, National and international agencies involved in conservation and management of wildlife, Ramsar convention
4. Biodiversity and sustainability of wildlife.
5. Conservation and management: Philosophy and significance of wildlife conservation, Population estimate technology, Conservation and management of wildlife sanctuaries; Game reserves, Zoos, Botanical gardens and national parks in Pakistan.
6. Wetlands: Wetland management, Migratory birds in Pakistan.
7. Endangered species of Pakistan.
1. Phylogenetic relationships of animals: Museum survey.
2. Critical account (phylogenetic controversies) of some important animal species with the help of literature.
3. Procedures for studying species richness, Simpson Index, Shannon Weiner function.
4. To study local subterranean animals, butterflies, birds and rodents (collection and identification). .
5. Demonstration of distribution of various species of birds in Pakistan (blank maps will be provided).
6. Demonstration of distribution of various species of mammals in Pakistan (blank maps will be provided).
7. Study of animal diversity of parks in Lahore.
8. Study of biodiversity in different ecozones of Pakistan.
9. To study the most endangered species of Pakistan.
10. Visit to a fish farm and report writing.
11. Visit to a bee farm and report writing.
1. Zoology.Miller, A. S. and Harley, J. B., 2000. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, Singapore.
2. Integrated principles of Zoology.Hickman, C. P., Roberts, L. S. and Larson, A. 2001. 11 th ed. McGraw- Hill, Singapore.
3. Principles of Wildlife Management.Bailey,J.A.1986.John Wiley&Sons Inc.USA.
4. Wildlife ecology and management. Robinson, W. L. and Bolen, E. G. 1984. McMillan Publishing Company. Cambridge, UK.
5. Mammals of Pakistan. Roberts, T. 1. 1977. Ernest Benon Ltd. London. UK.
6. The birds of Pakistan. Roberts, T. J. 1992. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. UK.
7. The birds of Pakistan. Roberts, T. J. 1998. Vol. II. Oxford University Press. UK.
8. A –Handbook of birds of India and Pakistan, Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D., 1973. Oxford University Press, London, UK.
9. A Primer of Conservation of Biology. Primack R. B. 2000. 2ndEd. Sinauer Associates Inc. USA.
10. Animal biodiversity of Pakistan. Mirza, Z. B. 1998. 1stEd: Printopack, Rawalpindi. Pakistan.
11. Principles of Environmental Science.Cunningham, W.P. and Cunningham ,M.I. 2004. 2nd ed. McGraw chill Company. USA.
wetlands of Pakistan
International agencies; Ramsar convention
Book Title : Integrated principles of Zoology
Author : Hickman, C. P., Roberts, L. S. and Larson, A.
Edition : 11th
Publisher : McGraw- Hill, Singapore
Title : bird migration
Type : Presentation
View bird migration
Title : International agencies
Type : Presentation
View International agencies
Title : wetland conservation
Type : Presentation
View wetland conservation