1. Introduction: Principal features of development, origin of sexual reproduction,
developmental patterns; Spermatogenesis; Oogenesis.
2.Fertilization: Recognition of sperm and egg, fusion of gametes, activation of egg
metabolism, rearrangement of egg cytoplasm.
3. Cleavage: Patterns of embryonic cleavage, mechanism of cleavage.
4. Gastrulation: Fate maps, gastrulation in sea urchin, amphibians, birds and
5. Early Vertebrate Development: Neurulation, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
(Emphasis on the germ layers only)
6. Cellular Basis of Morphogenesis: Differential cell affinity, cell adhesion
7. Mechanism of Cellular Differentiation: RNA processing, translational regulation
of developmental process, cell-fate by progressive determinants, autonomous cell
specification by cytoplasmic determinants, establishment of body axes and
mechanism of teratogenesis; Secondary Induction.
8. Organogenesis: A brief account; Origin and Migration of Germ Cells in
Vertebrates (One representative organ from each germ layer).
9. Factors controlling Growth and Oncogenesis.
10. Hormones as Mediators of Development; Regeneration in Vertebrates.
1. Developmental Biology. Gilbert, S. F., 2000. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
2. An Introduction to Embryology.Balinsky, B. I., 1985. W.B.Saunders and Co.
3. Development Biology.Saunders, J. W. 1982. McMillan and Co.
4. Introduction to Embryonic Development. Oppenheimer, S.S., 1984. Allen and
5. Modern Embryology. Bodemer, C. W., 1968. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
6. Mechanism of Development. Ham,R. G.and Veomett, M. J., 1980. C.V. Mosby Co.
7. Development. Berril, N. J. and Karp, G., 1978. McGraw Hill.
1. Study of gametesstructure in some representative cases, i.e., fowl and mammal.
2. Study of cleavage and subsequent development from prepared slides and/or whole mounts in various animals i.e., frog, chick etc.
3. Study of fertilization, early development of frog through models/slides.
4. Preparation and study of serial sections of mice or chick embryos.
5. Application of microsurgical techniques on chick embryos in vitro.
6. Preparation and staining of histological slides.
The course aims to:
1. Provide information on transmission of traits from the parents in their
gametes, the formation of zygote and its development
2. Impart detailed knowledge about cellular basis of morphogenesis,
mechanisms of cellular differentiation and induction.
3. Provide understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis, factors
controlling growth and oncogenesis.
Course Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Gain familiarity with features that make an organism model for the
learning of developmental biology e.g., fertilization in sea urchin with
mammalian like mechanisms.
2. Apprehend the contributions of the sperm and the egg to form zygote
3. Elucidate the problems associated with cell differentiation through fate
4. Arrange and investigate the classical and modern experiments into
“find it”, “block it”, and “move it” categories
5. Assess the set of experiments that will establish whether a planned
aspect is both necessary and ample to cause a developmental episode
6. Demonstratethe ability to label macromeres, mesomeres, and
micromeres and know which cell types are derived from each of these
cell layers in the early embryo (e.g., primary and secondary
mesenchyme, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm).
Organogenesis: A brief account; Origin and Migration of Germ Cells in Vertebrates
A brief account; Origin and Migration of Germ Cells in Vertebrates
Book Title : Developmental Biology
Author : Gilbert, S. F.
Edition : 2005
Publisher : Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 2
Title : teratogenesis
Type : Presentation
Title : Organogenesis
Type : Presentation
Title : Origin and Migration of Germ Cells in Vertebrates
Type : Other
View Origin and Migration of Germ Cells in Vertebrates