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Course Contents

COURSE CONTENTS THEORY 1. Protection, Support, and Movement Protection: the integumentary system of invertebrates and vertebrates; movement and support: the skeletal system of invertebrates and vertebrates; movement: non-muscular movement; an introduction to animal muscles; the muscular system of invertebrates and vertebrates. 2. Communication I: Nerves Neurons: structure and function; neuron communication: introductory accounts of resting membrane potential, action potential (nerve impulse) and transmission of the action potential between cells; invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems: the spinal cord, spinal nerves, the brain, cranial nerves and the autonomic nervous system. 3. Communication II: Senses Sensory reception: baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, georeceptors, hygroreceptors, phonoreceptors, photoreceptors, proprioceptors, tactile receptors, and hermoreceptors of invertebrates; lateral-line system and electrical sensing, lateral-line system and mechanoreception, hearing and equilibrium in air, hearing and equilibrium in water, skin sensors of damaging stimuli, skin sensors of heat and cold, skin sensors of mechanical stimuli, sonar, smell, taste and vision in vertebrates. 4. Communication III: The Endocrine System and Chemical Messengers Chemical messengers: hormones chemistry; and their feedback systems; mechanisms of hormone action; some hormones of porifera, cnidarians, platyhelminthes, nemerteans, nematodes, molluscs, annelids, arthropods, and echinoderms invertebrates; an overview of the vertebrate endocrine system; endocrine systems of vertebrates other than birds or mammals; endocrine systems of birds and mammals. 5. Circulation, Immunity, and Gas Exchange Internal transport and circulatory systems in invertebrates: characteristics of invertebrate coelomic fluid, hemolymph, and blood cells; transport systems in vertebrates; characteristics of vertebrate blood, blood cells and vessels; the hearts and circulatory systems of bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles,birds and mammals; the human heart: blood pressure and the lymphatic system; immunity: nonspecific defenses, the immune response; gas exchange: respiratory surfaces; invertebrate and vertebrate respiratory systems: utaneous exchange, gills, lungs, and lung ventilation; human respiratory system: gas transport.

Course Synopsis

Course has been completed before the University closed. Assignments and presentations have been taken. I am in contact with them on whatsApp group regarding any other problem.

Human Circulatory System

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Human Endocrine System

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Book Title : Zoology
Author : Miller, S.A. and Harley, J.B.,
Edition : 6th
Publisher : McGraw Hill

Title : Lecture1 Ch.1 and Chp.2(Revision)
Type :

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Title : Lecture2 Chp.3 and chp.4 (Revision)
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Title : Lecture 3 Chp.5
Type : Presentation

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