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Course Contents

COURSE CONTENTS THEORY 1. Place of Zoology in Science One-world view: genetic unity, the fundamental unit of life, evolutionary oneness and the diversity of life, environment and world resources; what is zoology? Classification of animals; the scientific method. 2. The Chemical Bases of Animal Life Atoms and elements: building blocks of all matter; compounds and molecules: aggregates of atoms; acids, bases, and buffers; the molecules of animals: fractional account of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides and nucleic acids based on their structural aspects. 3. Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ System of Animals Structure and functions of cell membranes; various movements across membranes; cytoplasm, organelles, and cellular components: functional account of ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella, centrioles and microtubules, and vacuoles based on their structural aspects. The nucleus: nuclear envelope, chromosomes and nucleolus. Tissues: diversity in epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue to perform various functions. Structuralintegrations of functions in organs and organ systems. 4. Energy and Enzymes: Life’s Driving and Controlling Forces Energy and the laws of energy transformation; activation energy; enzymes: structure, function and factors affecting their activity; cofactors and coenzymes; ATP: how cells convert energy? An overview. 5. How Animals Harvest Energy Stored in Nutrients Glycolysis: the first phase of nutrient metabolism; fermentation: “life without oxygen”; aerobic respiration: the major source of ATP; metabolism of fats and proteins; control of metabolism; the metabolic pool. 6. Ecology I: Individuals and Populations Animals and their abiotic environment; populations; interspecific interactions. 7. Ecology II: Communities and Ecosystems Community structure and diversity; ecosystems; ecosystems of the earth; ecological problems; human population growth, pollution, resource depletion and biodiversity. PRACTICALS 1. Tests for different carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Note: Emphasis on the concept that tests materials have been ultimately obtained from living organisms and constituted their body. 2. Study of the prepared slides of squamous, cuboidal, columnar epithelial tissues, adipose, connective, cartilage, bone, blood, nervous, skeletal muscle, smooths muscle and cardiac muscle tissues. Note: Prepared microscopic and/or projection slides and/or CD ROM computer projections must be used. 3. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood. 4. Protein digestion by pepsin. 5. Ecological notes on animals of a few model habitats. 6. Field observation and report writing on animals in their ecosystem (a terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem study).

Course Synopsis

The following course is designed to provide an introduction to Zoology for BS freshmen year at LCWU. The course will be able to give students the basic concepts in Zoological sciences and concept of the process of life.

Course Learning Outcomes

The course aims to impart knowledge and understanding of: a. The concept and status of Zoology in life sciences. b. The common processes of life through its chemistry, biochemical and molecular processes. c. The structure and function of cell organelle and how common animal cell diversified in various tissues, organs and organ systems. d. Biochemical mechanisms eventually generating energy for animal work. e. Animals and their relationship with their environment.


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Basics of Animal Life

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Book Title : Zoology
Author : Miller, S.A. and Harley, J.B.
Edition : 4th, 5th & 6th Eds. (International)
Publisher : McGraw-Hill

Book Title : Biology of Invertebrates
Author : Pechenik, J.A.
Edition : 4th and 5th Eds. (International)
Publisher : McGraw-Hill

Book Title : Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates
Author : Kent, G.C. and Miller, S.
Edition : 2001
Publisher : McGraw-Hill

Title : Basics Eco-Zoology
Type : Presentation

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Title : Ecosystems and Communities
Type : Presentation

View Ecosystems and Communities