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Course Contents

I. Atmosphere i. Composition and structure of atmosphere ii. Temperature and pressure iii. Atmospheric circulation, air masses and fronts (classification, distribution and associated weather) iv. Cyclones and weather disturbances v. Atmospheric moisture and precipitation. II. Lithosphere i. Composition and Internal structure of the Earth ii. Rocks - origin, formation and types (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic) iii. Plate tectonics, mountain building, geomorphic processes - internal and external iv. Earthquakes v. Volcanic activity vi. Weathering and mass wasting vii. Landforms produced by surface water, ground water, wind and glaciers. III. Hydrosphere i. Configuration of ocean floor ii. Ocean deposits, composition, temperature and salinity of ocean water iii. Movements of ocean water, waves, currents and tides. IV. Biosphere i. Ecosystems ii. Formation and types of soil iii. Forest biomes (major forest types). V. Weather Maps i. Study of Pakistan daily weather maps Lab Work Recording and observation of weather data from a mini weather station. Field visits Visit to any national park/biosphere reserves, soil survey of Pakistan, meteorological station/observatory, national institute of oceanography and SUPARCO.

Course Synopsis

This course will create understanding of Physical Geography including atmosphere and biosphere

Course Learning Outcomes

By the end of this course, the student will: • Understand the major processes involved in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere in more detail in the context of the pedosphere

Earth's Atmosphere

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Layered Structure of Atmosphere

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Lecture Recordings and other Material

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Title : Lecture I Composition and Structure of Atmosphere
Type : Presentation

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Title : Atmospheric Pressure
Type : Presentation

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Title : Air Masses-Fronts
Type : Presentation

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