1. Photosynthesis: History of photosynthesis. Nature and units of light.
Determination of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Ultrastructure of thylakoid vesicle. Various pigments and photosynthetic activity. Ultrastructure and composition of photosystem-I and II. Absorption and action spectra of different pigments. Mechanism of photosynthesis - light absorption, charge separation or oxidation of water (water oxidizing clock), electron and proton transport through thylakoid protein-pigment complexes. Photophosphorylation and its mechanism. CO2 reduction (dark reactions) - C3 pathway and Photorespiration, Regulation of C3 pathway, C4 pathway and its different forms, C3-C4 intermediates, CAM pathway. Methods of measurement of photosynthesis.
2. Respiration: Synthesis of hexose sugars from reserve carbohydrates. Mechanism of respiration- Glycolysis, Differences between cytosolic and chloroplastidic glycolysis, Oxidative decarboxylation, Krebs cycle, Regulation of glycolysis and Krebs cycle, Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Energetics of respiration. Pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate cycle. Cyanide resistant respiration.
3. Translocation of Food: Pathway of translocation, source and sink interaction, materials translocated, mechanism of phloem transport, loading and unloading.
4. Leaves and Atmosphere: Gaseous exchange, mechanism of stomatal movement (photoactive opening; scotoactive closing and opening). Factors affecting stomatal movement.
5. Water Relations: The soil -plant -atmosphere continuum - an overview. Structure of water. Physico-chemical properties of water. Water in the soil and its potentials. Water in cell components. Absorption of water in plants (pathways and driving forces, Aquaporins,-their structure and types). Cell water relations terminology. Hofler diagram - analysis of change in turgor, water and osmotic potential with changes in cell volume. Modulus of elasticity coefficient; Hydraulic conductivity. Osmoregulation, Methods for measurement of water , osmotic and turgor potentials- Pressure chamber, psychrometry, pressure probe, pressure volume curve.
6. Assimilation of Nitrogen, Sulphur and Phosphorus: The nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen fixation. Pathways of assimilation of nitrate and ammonium ions. Assimilation of sulphur and phosphorus.
1. To determine the volume of CO2 evolved during respiration by plant material.
2. To determine the amount of O2 used by respiring water plant by Winkler Method.
3. Separation of chloroplast pigments on column chromatogram and their quantification by spectrophotometer.
4. To extract and separate anthocyanins and other phenolic pigments from plant material and study their light absorption properties.
5. To categorize C3 and C4 plants through their anatomical and physiological characters.
6. To regulate stomatal opening by light of different colors and pH.
Book Title : Plant Physiology
Author : Lincoln Taiz and Eduardo Zeiger
Edition : 3rd-6th
Publisher : Sinauer Associates;