1. Environment: Introduction, scope, pressure
2. Pollution: definition, classification and impact on habitats
i. Air pollution: Sources and effect of various pollutants (inorganic, organic) on plants, prevention, control, and remediation. Photochemical smog. Smog. Acid rain: 1. Theory of acid rain, 2. Adverse effects of acid rains. Chloroflurocarbons and its effects.
ii. Water pollution: Major sources of water pollution and its impact on vegetation. prevention, control remediation, eutrophication, thermal pollution.
iii. Agrochemical pollution: fungicide, pesticides and herbicide.
iv. Solid waste management.
v. Major soil pollution and its impact. Prevention, control remediation. Heavy metal pollution. Tanneries. Hospital waste. Treatments of sewage, sludge, and polluted waters.
vi. Noise pollution
vii. Radiation pollution (including nuclear): Measurement, classification and effects, Principle of radiation protection, waste disposal
3. Forest: importance, deforestation, desertification and conservation
4. Ozone layer:
ii. Mechanism of depletion
iii. Effects of ozone depletion
5. Greenhouse effect: causes, impacts.
6. Human population explosion: impact on environment.
7. Impact assessment: Industrial urban, civil developments.
8. National conservation strategy: Brief review of major problems of Pakistan and their solutions.
9. Sustainable Environmental management
10. Wetlands and sanctuaries protection: The pressures, problems and solutions.
11. Range management: Types of rangelands, potential threats, Sustainable management.
1. Examination of industrial waste water and Municipal sewage and sludge for
i) Total dissolved solids.
ii) pH and EC.
iv) Chlorides, carbonate, and Nitrates.
2. Examination of water samples forms different sites for the presence and diversity of organisms.
3. Effect of air pollutants on plants.
4. Visits to environmentally compromised sites and evolution of remediation methods.
Measurement of COD of a water sample
Measurement of BOD of a water sample
Determination of Total dissolved solids in a water sample
Estimation of chlorides in a water sample
Estimation of Carbonates in water sample
Estimation of nitrates in water samples
The Green House Effect
Range land management
National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan
Book Title : Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions
Author : Michael L. McKinney, Robert M. Schoch
Edition : 3rd
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Learning