Unit 1 Data and its Presentation 1.1 Observation and their Measurements 1.2 Types of Data 1.3 Presentation of Data 1.4 Graphs and Charts Unit 2 Measure of Central Tendency 2.1 Arithmetic mean 2.2 Median 2.3 Mode 2.4 Percentiles Unit 3 Measures of Dispersions 3.1 Absolute and relative measure of dispersion 3.1.1 Range 3.1.2 Quartile deviation 3.1.3 Coefficient of quartile deviation 3.1.4 Variance and standard deviation 3.1.5 Coefficient of variation 3.1.6 Skewness and kurtosis Unit 4 Simple Linear Regression 4.1 Introduction to Regression 4.2 Scatter Diagram 4.3 Simple Linear Regression 4.4 Use of Regression 4.5 Line of Estimation and Prediction 4.6 Correlation of Coefficient and its Interpretation Unit 5 Introduction to Probability 5.1 Definition of Probability 5.2 Random Experiment 5.3 Sample Space 5.4 Events Unit 6 Probability Distributions 6.1 Concept of Random Variable 6.2 Properties and application of Binomial Distribution Unit 7 Sampling and Sampling Distributions 7.1 Introduction to Sampling Theory 7.2 Probability and non- Probability Sampling 7.3 Simple random sampling 7.4 Sampling distribution of mean difference between means and proportion Unit 8 Estimation and Hypothesis Testing 8.1 Point estimation 8.2 Point estimation of mean and difference between means and proportion 8.3 Null and Alternative hypothesis 8.4 Level of significance 8.5 Type-I and II errors 8.6 One and two tail tests 8.7 Testing of hypothesis regarding means, difference between means and proportion 8.8 Contingency Table 8.9 Testing the independence of Attributes

This course covers the basic principles of elementary statistics, providing a good foundation for research students to do further course work and research involving the use of statistical analyses. Topics will include basic descriptive measures; sampling and sample size estimation; testing for differences between means, correlation, and measures of association; techniques for analyzing categorical data; and summarizing and presenting statistical results. The course focuses on applications of basic statistical concepts to a wide range of problems encountered in educational and policy-related research. The focus will be on understanding how to use and interpret the statistical procedures commonly used in quantitative research. The use of computer packages for assisting in data analysis will be emphasized throughout the course.

Student will be able to utilize the SPSS, statistical software to handle data analysis. This will enable them to analyze their research data

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Book Title : Introduction to Statistics

Author : Muhammad, S. C.

Edition : 5th

Publisher : : Ilmi Kitab Khana

Book Title : Introductory Statistics

Author : Wonnacott, T. H., & Wonnacott R. J.

Edition : 8th

Publisher : New York: Johan Wiley and Sons.

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