Overview of scientific research; improvement through research; nature of scientific inquiry; applications of research; choosing a project; development of a research project; writing a research grant application; writing a research publication; role of students in research; supervisor’s role in research; research project design and investigation; deciding on techniques to be employed; analysis of results; data analysis tools; control, samples and replications; reviewing the literature; primary and secondary reference sources; scientific record keeping; use of microorganisms, animals, plants and humans in experimentation; use of pathogens in experiments; conflict of interests; research ethics; ownership of data; writing, presentation and publishing the scientific papers; filing patent application.
Research competencies and skills are essential for the effective conduct and understanding of research and ultimately for evidence-based decision-making, whether in business, government or civil society.
Course Learning Outcomes
The course aims to impart knowledge and understanding of:
a. Research related concepts and problems.
b. Enable the students to conduct research.
Overview of scientific research
applications of research
writing a research grant application
writing a research publication
role of supervisor and student in research
research project design and investigation
analysis of results; data analysis tools; control, samples and replications;
; use of microorganisms, animals, plants and humans in experimentation;
use of pathogens in experiments
conflict of interest in research
ownership of data
writing, presentation and publishing the scientific papers
filing patent application.
Book Title : Social research methods
Author : Bryman A, 2003
Edition : Second Edition
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Book Title : Awan JA, 2003
Author : Awan JA, 2003
Publisher : Unitech Communication, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Book Title : Research Methdology: a step by step guidefor beginners.
Author : Kumar R, Kindersely D, 2010.
Edition : Third Edition
Publisher : SAGE Publication.
Book Title : Research Methdology: Methods and Techniques.
Author : Kothari CR, 2004.
Edition : Second Revised Edition
Publisher : New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.
Book Title : Technical Writing.
Author : Durrani SA, 2004
Publisher : Higher Education Commision, Islamabad.