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Course Contents

1) Approaches and types of research: • Historical research, qualitative/descriptive research • Case referent study/cross-sectional research • Longitudinal, causal-comparative research, • Experimental research; evaluative studies, forecasting studies, design, and feasibility studies, 2) Research design • Ethical issues, • Formulation and statement of research problem • Conceptual framework • Research questions, research hypotheses, research objectives • Research plan 3) Review of Literature • Preparation • Sources • Abstracting • Citation and Referencing using Endnote 4) Data collection • Universe and sampling • Primary and secondary data, sources of data, selection of a sample, • Variables and measuring instruments • Basic considerations in sampling, size of the sample • Geo-statistical considerations. Sampling units and design points • Traverses, random and non-random sampling, stratified • Purposive and systematic sampling 5) Data analysis and interpretation • Use of statistical/ quantitative techniques  Central tendency, dispersion, and variability. Scatter diagram  Standard error and probability  Methods of correlation: linear, non-linear, multiple  The product moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, correlation matrix  Regression analysis, testing of hypothesis, and significance  Chi Square, "T" test, "F" test, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Multivariate analysis. Factor analysis and principal components analysis  Scatter diagram, methods of constructing regression lines, and mapping residuals  Interpolation, prediction, and explanation 6) Research report writing, Bibliography, and references 7) Scholarly writing for publication

Course Synopsis

This course introduces research methods as they apply to higher education and provides a macro perspective of the methods associated with conducting scholarly research in all follow-on core, elective, quantitative, and qualitative courses; and the Ph.D. thesis. It also equips students with the skills to review and conduct methodologically sound research as a part of their professional work. It aims at developing independent researchers capable of conducting research in any field

Course Learning Outcomes

Upon completing this course, the students would understand the research process and be able to become efficient researcher in field in order to find appropriate and optimum solution to problems, which further will lead them to get employed in in local or any international research organization. By the end of this course the students will be able to develop a research proposal (preferably one that they plan to work on in III and IV semesters).

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