Week 1-2 Living Things and Their Environments
• Living things live in environments to which they are particularly suited.
• Specific habitats and what lives there, for example:
Forest [oak trees, squirrels, raccoons, snails, mice]
Meadow and prairie [wildflowers, grasses, prairie dogs]
Underground [fungi, moles, worms]
Desert [cactus, lizard, scorpion]
Water [fish, oysters, starfish]
• The food chain or food web: a way of picturing the relationships between living things
Animals: big animals eat little ones, big animals die and are eaten by little ones.
Plants: nutrients, water, soil, air, sunlight Habitats, interdependence of organisms and their environment
• The concept of a “balance of nature” (constantly changing, not a static condition)
Man-made threats to the environment
Air pollution: emissions, smog
Water pollution: industrial waste, run-off from farming
• Measures we can take to protect the environment (for example, conservation, recycling)
Week 3 Environmental change and habitat destruction
• Environments are constantly changing, and this can sometimes pose dangers to specific
habitats, for example:
Effects of population and development
Rainforest clearing, pollution, litter
Special classifications of animals
• Herbivores: plant-eaters (for example, elephants, cows, deer)
• Carnivores: flesh-eaters (for example, lions, tigers)
• Omnivores: plant and animal-eaters (for example, bears)
• Extinct animals (for example, dinosaurs)
Week 4-5 The Human Body
Cells Body Systems
• Skeletal system: skeleton, bones, skull
• Muscular system: muscles
• Digestive system: mouth, stomach
• Circulatory system: heart and blood
The circulatory and lymphatic systems
Lymph, lymph nodes, white cells, tonsils
Blood pressure, hardening and clogging of arteries
• The immune system fights infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi.
White cells, antibodies, antigens
Vaccines, communicable and non-communicable diseases, epidemics
Bacterial diseases: tetanus, typhoid, tuberculosis; antibiotics like penicillin, discovered
by Alexander Fleming
Viral diseases: common cold, chicken pox, mononucleosis, rabies, polio, AIDS
• Nervous system: brain, nerves
The Endocrine system
Week 7 Germs, diseases, and preventing illness
• Taking care of your body: exercise, cleanliness, healthy foods, rest
• Asexual reproduction
Example of algae
Vegetative reproduction: runners (for example, strawberries) and bulbs (for
example, onions), growing plants from eyes, buds, leaves, roots, and stems
• Sexual reproduction by spore-bearing plants (for example, mosses and ferns)
• Sexual reproduction of non-flowering seed plants: conifers (for example, pines), male
and female cones, wind pollination
• Sexual reproduction of flowering plants (for example, peas)
Functions of sepals and petals, stamen (male), anther, pistil (female), ovary (or
Process of seed and fruit production: pollen, wind, insect and bird pollination,
fertilization, growth of ovary, mature fruit
Seed germination and plant growth: seed coat, embryo and endosperm, germination
(sprouting of new plant), monocots (for example, corn) and dicots (for
Week 8 Mid Term Exams
Week 9 Elements
• Elements are the basic kinds of matter, of which there are a little more than one hundred.
There are many different kinds of atoms, but an element has only one kind of atom.
Familiar elements, such as gold, copper, aluminum, oxygen, iron
Most things are made up of a combination of elements.
Week 10 Elements have atoms of only one kind, having the same number of protons. There
are a little more than 100 different elements.
• The Periodic Table: organizes elements with common properties
Atomic symbol and atomic number
• Some well-known elements and their symbols
Two important categories of elements: metals and non-metals
Metals comprise about ⅔ of the known elements.
Properties of metals: most are shiny, ductile, malleable, conductive
Week 11 Solutions
• A solution is formed when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in another substance (the solvent), such as when sugar or salt is dissolved in water; the dissolved substance is present in the solution even though you cannot see it.
• Concentration and saturation (as demonstrated through simple experiments with
Week 12 Magnetism and Electricity
Earth’s magnetism is believed to be caused by movements of charged atoms in the
molten interior of the planet.
Navigation by magnetic compass is made possible because the earth is a magnet
with north and south magnetic poles.
• Connection between electricity and magnetism
Example: move a magnet back and forth in front of wire connected to a meter, and
electricity flows in the wire. The reverse: electric current flowing through a wire
exerts magnetic attraction.
Spinning electrons in an atom create a magnetic field around the atom.
Unlike magnetic poles attract, like magnetic poles repel.
Practical applications of the connection between electricity and magnetism, for example:
An electric generator creates alternating current by turning a magnet and a coil of
wire in relation to each other; an electric motor works on the reverse principle.
A step-up transformer sends alternating current through a smaller coil of wire with
just a few turns next to a larger coil with many turns. This induces a higher
voltage in the larger coil. A step-down transformer does the reverse, sending
current through the larger coil and creating a lower voltage in the smaller one.
Week 13 Simple Machines
gears: wheels with teeth and notches
how gears work, and familiar uses (for example, in bicycles)
Friction, and ways to reduce friction (lubricants, rollers, etc.)
Week 14 Light and Optics
The speed of light: light travels at an amazingly high speed.
• Light travels in straight lines (as can be demonstrated by forming shadows).
• Transparent and opaque objects
Mirrors: plane, concave, convex
Uses of mirrors in telescopes and some microscopes
• The spectrum: use a prism to demonstrate that white light is made up of a
spectrum of colors.
• Lenses can be used for magnifying and bending light (as in magnifying glass, microscope,
camera, telescope, binoculars).
Week 16 Final Term Examination
Week 9 , Elements & Compounds
Week 10- Elements
Week 11- video link-SOLUTIONS , SUSPENSIONS & REACTIONS
Week 12-Magnetism and Electricity
Week 13- ppt- Simple Machines
Week 13-b- Simple Machines
Week 14- Video link-Light and Optics
Week 15-ppt-Light and Optics
Book Title : Chemistry 2e
Author : Paul Flowers,Klaus Theopold,Richard Langley &William R. Robinson
Edition : 1
Publisher : Openstax -Rice university