1. Introduction, History of microbiology, Microbes influencing our lives, Characterization and identification of microorganisms.
2. Morphology and fine structure of bacterium: Size, Shape and arrangement of bacterial cells, motility, Capsules, Structure and composition of cell wall, Cytoplasmic membrane, Protoplasts, Endospore, pilus.
3. Cultivation of Bacteria: Nutritional requirements, Nutritional types of bacteria, Bacteriological media, Physical conditions required for growth.
4. Pure culture and growth characteristics: Pure culture, Methods of isolating pure culture, maintenance and preservation of pure culture, Cultural characteristics.
5. Growth and Metabolism: Growth of microbial population, measurement of microbial growth, growth rate, growth curve, determination of number of cells by direct microscopic count, Plate count method, membrane filter count, Turbidimetric method, determination of cell mass by measurement of growth.
6. Soil microbiology: Soil environment, Microbial flora of soil, Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Rhizosphere, Biogeochemical activities of micro organisms in soil.
7. Air microbiology: Microbial content of air, Indoor air, Outdoor air.
8. Water microbiology: Microbiology of sea, Lakes and ponds, Rivers and streams,Microbes of domestic water, Microbes of sewage water.
9. Food microbiology: Microbial spoilage of foods, Food poisoning, Food infection, Factors effecting the spoilage of food (water, pH, oxygen, nutrients, physical structure of food), Botlism food poisoning, Mycotoxins, Food preservation (drying, refrigeration, irradiation, canning).
1. Isolation of microorganisms from air.
2. Isolation of microorganisms from water.
3. Isolation of microorganisms from soil.
4. To study the morphology of moulds.
5. To study physical characteristics of bacterial colonies.
6. To study bacteria of different morphology.
7. Different techniques for the isolation of microorganisms.
8. Gram staining of mouth flora.
9. To study bacterial motility by hanging drop method.
10. Negative staining of bacteria.
11. Acid fast staining of bacteria.
12. Staining of bacterial capsules.
13. To study different sterilization techniques.Isolation of spore forming bacteria from powdered milk
14. Staining of endospores of bacteria. .
15. To study viable counting of bacteria.
The objectives of the course are:-
1. To enable the students to work with microorganisms
2. To understand the basic techniques of sterilization, culturing and
3. To determine different characteristics of the microorganisms
Course Learning Outcomes
Course Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:
1. ATTAINthe fundamental knowledge regardingmicroorganisms
2. COMPREHEND the basic concepts of microbial diversity
3. GRASPthe microbiological techniques and use them efficiently
4. EXPLOREthe microbial diversity androle of microorganisms
5. VALIDATEpractical skills in the design and execution of experiments
6. APPLY the scientific method of investigation and hypothesis testing
1. Introduction, History of microbiology
2. Morphology and fine structure of bacterium
3. Cultivation of Bacteria
4. Pure culture and growth characteristics
5. Growth and Metabolism
6. Soil microbiology
7. Air microbiology
8. Water microbiology
9. Food microbiology
Book Title : Microbiology.
Author : Pelczar, M. J. Chan, E. C. and King, N. R
Edition : 51h ed
Publisher : McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York.
Book Title : Medical Microbiology
Author : Khan, A. M.
Edition : . 151 ed
Publisher : Time Publishers Pakistan