1. The nature and origin to life. Evidences of evolution. (molecular, embryological & paleontological). Theories to explain the diversity of life – Modern synthetic theory. Factors initiating elementary evolutionary changes (micro-evolution) by changing gene frequencies, mutation pressure, selection pressure, immigration and crossbreeding, genetic drift. Role of isolation in evolution.
2. Factors of large evolutionary changes (macro/mega evolution) - allometry, orthogenesis, adaptive radiation.
3. Modern concept of Natural Selection: Levels of selection, selection patterns, laboratory and field example regarding action of Natural Selection. Action of Natural Selection leading to convergence, radiation, regression and extinction, Batesian mimicry, Mullerian mimicry. Sexual selection: Darwin’s concept, Fisher’s view, Zahavi’s handicap theory. Trend and rates in evolution.
1. Contribution of systematics to Biology: History of Taxonomy (Downward classification, upward classification, impact of the origin of species, population systematics, current trends); Microtaxonomy (brief account of various taxonomic categories i.e.,phenon, Taxon; Taxonomic categories).Brief account of species concepts (Typological concept; nominalistic concept, Biological concept, evolutionary concept, species mate recognition concept; non-dimensional species concept; Multidimenstional species concept; Cohesion species concept). Difficulties in the application of biological species concepts; polytypic species, subspecies, super species, sibling species.
2. Macrotaxonomy; Taxonomic collection and identification; definitions of Synonym, Homonym, Keys; Evolution of the theory of Nomenclature; interpretation and application of the code (stability, priority, first revisor principle) range of authority of code; concept of availability, type method formation of specific names.
Evolution, theory in biology postulating that the various types of plants, animals, and other living things on Earth have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations. The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory.
Phylogenetic trees of species and higher taxa are used to study the evolution of traits (e.g., anatomical or molecular characteristics) and the distribution of organisms (biogeography). Systematics, in other words, is used to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth.
Course Learning Outcomes
The course is designed to provide in depth knowledge or origin of life,and about forces responsible for evolutionary changes. The students will be taught basic rules and regulations about the identification and naming of organisms.
hardy weinberg law of genetic equilibrium
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