To introduce the basic concepts of random variable and probability distribution. To introduce the sampling distribution, estimation and testing of hypothesis, contingency table, association of attributes. To build the concept of statistical inference, and to apply it in the field work. Use of statistical tools in the relevant major Contents: Definition of statistics, descriptive and inferential statistics, observation, discrete and continuous variables, collection of primary and secondary data, construction of frequency distribution, diagrams and graphs and their construction, bar chart, pie chart, histogram, frequency curves, types of frequency curves, exercise on SPSS. Summary measures Introduction of averages, mean median and mode, quantiles, merits and demerits of averages, box and whiskers plot, outliers and their detection, introduction of measures dispersion, range, variance and standard deviation, coefficient of variance and coefficient of skewness, exercise on SPSS. PROBABILITY Introduction of probability, addition and multiplication theorems (application only), normal distribution (properties and applications) Sampling techniques Introduction, sample design and sample frame and bias, sampling and non sampling errors, sampling with and without replacement, probability and non-probability sampling, simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic and cluster sampling. Test of significance Introduction t test, basic idea of means, testing of difference between means t-test, basic idea of chi square test, testing the association of variables, F-test. Learning outcomes Students should have understanding of broad set of fields like surveys and data analyzing techniques, applying the tools in their research work. Recommended books 1. Ch. Sher Muhammad, introduction to statistics, part 1, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore Pakistan. 2. Ch. Sher Muhammad, introduction to statistics, part II, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore Pakistan. 3. Walpole R.E. Myers, R.H. Myers, S.L. and Ye. K. (1997). Probability and statistics for engineers and scientists. Printice Hall, Inc. NewYork. 4. Wonnacott T.H. and Wonnacott R.G. (1981). Introductory statistics, John Wiley and sons, New York.

This course aims to provide students with the essential concepts of probability and biostatistics and how this can be employed for analyzing real data.

View Now

View Now

View Now

No Information Yet

No Information Yet