To introduce the basic concepts of random variable and probability distribution.
To introduce the sampling distribution, estimation and testing of hypothesis, contingency table, association of attributes.
To build the concept of statistical inference, and to apply it in the field work.
Use of statistical tools in the relevant major
Definition of statistics, descriptive and inferential statistics, observation, discrete and continuous variables, collection of primary and secondary data, construction of frequency distribution, diagrams and graphs and their construction, bar chart, pie chart, histogram, frequency curves, types of frequency curves, exercise on SPSS.
Introduction of averages, mean median and mode, quantiles, merits and demerits of averages, box and whiskers plot, outliers and their detection, introduction of measures dispersion, range, variance and standard deviation, coefficient of variance and coefficient of skewness, exercise on SPSS.
Introduction of probability, addition and multiplication theorems (application only), normal distribution (properties and applications)
Introduction, sample design and sample frame and bias, sampling and non sampling errors, sampling with and without replacement, probability and non-probability sampling, simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic and cluster sampling.
Test of significance
Introduction t test, basic idea of means, testing of difference between means t-test, basic idea of chi square test, testing the association of variables, F-test.
Students should have understanding of broad set of fields like surveys and data analyzing techniques, applying the tools in their research work.
1. Ch. Sher Muhammad, introduction to statistics, part 1, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore Pakistan.
2. Ch. Sher Muhammad, introduction to statistics, part II, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Lahore Pakistan.
3. Walpole R.E. Myers, R.H. Myers, S.L. and Ye. K. (1997). Probability and statistics for engineers and scientists. Printice Hall, Inc. NewYork.
4. Wonnacott T.H. and Wonnacott R.G. (1981). Introductory statistics, John Wiley and sons, New York.
This course aims to provide students with the essential concepts of probability and biostatistics and how this can be employed for analyzing real data.
testing of hypothesis of means for paired observations
test of independence
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